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This is the type of defense applied to a detected client address for the connection mitigation. If the option is set to "default", we obey a parameter in the consensus document. Relays use these documents to send inessential information about statistics, bandwidth history, and network health to the authorities. All Lundqvist has done since taking the No. When this option is enabled, a Tor relay writes obfuscated statistics on its role as hidden-service directory, introduction point, or rendezvous point to disk every 24 hours. This option may be used multiple times for different hidden services.

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The minimum number of file descriptors that must be available to the Tor process before it will start. Tor will ask the OS for as many file descriptors as the OS will allow you can find this by "ulimit -H -n". If this number is less than ConnLimit, then Tor will refuse to start. It has no effect on Windows since that platform lacks getrlimit. Controllers sometimes use this option to avoid using the network until Tor is fully configured. Tor will make still certain network-related calls like DNS lookups as a part of its configuration process, even if DisableNetwork is set.

If set, Tor will tell the kernel to attempt to shrink the buffers for all sockets to the size specified in ConstrainedSockSize. This is useful for virtual servers and other environments where system level TCP buffers may be limited. No buffer space available" message, you are likely experiencing this problem. The cached directory requests consume additional sockets which exacerbates the problem.

You should not enable this feature unless you encounter the "no buffer space available" issue. Reducing the TCP buffers affects window size for the TCP stream and will reduce throughput in proportion to round trip time on long paths.

When ConstrainedSockets is enabled the receive and transmit buffers for all sockets will be set to this limit. Must be a value between and , in byte increments. Default of is recommended. If set, Tor will accept connections on this port and allow those connections to control the Tor process using the Tor Control Protocol described in control-spec. Setting both authentication methods means either method is sufficient to authenticate to Tor.

This option is required for many Tor controllers; most use the value of If a unix domain socket is used, you may quote the path using standard C escape sequences. Set it to "auto" to have Tor pick a port for you. Unix domain sockets only: Do not insist that the directory that holds the socket be read-restricted. Unix and Unix-like systems only. If the option is set to 1, make the control socket readable and writable by the default GID.

You can compute the hash of a password by running "tor --hash-password password ". You can provide several acceptable passwords by using more than one HashedControlPassword line.

This authentication method should only be used on systems with good filesystem security. If set, Tor writes the address and port of any control port it opens to this address. Usable by controllers to learn the actual control port when ControlPort is set to "auto".

If the option is set to 1, make the control port file readable by the default GID. Store working data in DIR. Can not be changed while tor is running.

On Windows, the default is your ApplicationData folder. Store cached directory data in DIR. Clients also simultaneously try a FallbackDir, to avoid hangs on client startup if a directory authority is down. Clients retry FallbackDirs more often than directory authorities, to reduce the load on the directory authorities. By default, the directory authorities are also FallbackDirs.

See the DirAuthority entry for an explanation of each flag. Use a nonstandard authoritative directory server at the provided address and port, with the specified key fingerprint. This option can be repeated many times, for multiple authoritative directory servers.

Flags are separated by spaces, and determine what kind of an authority this directory is. By default, an authority is not authoritative for any directory style or version unless an appropriate flag is given.

Tor will use this authority as a bridge authoritative directory if the "bridge" flag is set. Tor will contact the authority at ipv4address to download directory documents. If no DirAuthority line is given, Tor will use the default directory authorities. When configured to use both directory authorities and fallback directories, the directory authorities also work as fallbacks.

They are chosen with their regular weights, multiplied by this number, which should be 1. The default is less than 1, to reduce load on authorities. These options behave as DirAuthority, but they replace fewer of the default directory authorities.

Using AlternateDirAuthority replaces the default Tor directory authorities, but leaves the default bridge authorities in place. Similarly, AlternateBridgeAuthority replaces the default bridge authority, but leaves the directory authorities alone.

If set to 1, Tor will attempt to lock all current and future memory pages, so that memory cannot be paged out. Windows, OS X and Solaris are currently not supported. If set to 1, Tor will attempt to prevent basic debugging attachment attempts by other processes. This may also keep Tor from generating core files if it crashes.

This feature will attempt to limit the PTRACE scope for Tor specifically - it will not attempt to alter the system wide ptrace scope as it may not even exist. If you wish to attach to Tor with a debugger such as gdb or strace you will want to set this to 0 for the duration of your debugging.

Normal users should leave it on. Disabling this option while Tor is running is prohibited. Normal users should leave it off. If set to 1, Tor will fetch directory information before other directory caches. It will attempt to download directory information closer to the start of the consensus period. If set to 0, Tor will never fetch any hidden service descriptors from the rendezvous directories.

If set to 0, Tor will never fetch any network status summaries or server descriptors from the directory servers. If set to 1, Tor will fetch every consensus flavor, and all server descriptors and authority certificates referenced by those consensuses, except for extra info descriptors. When this option is 1, Tor will also keep fetching descriptors, even when idle. If set to 0, Tor will avoid fetching useless descriptors: Tor will make all its directory requests through this host: If defined, Tor will use this username: This is currently the only form of HTTP proxy authentication that Tor supports; feel free to submit a patch if you want it to support others.

You may want to set FascistFirewall to restrict the set of ports you might try to connect to, if your HTTPS proxy only allows connecting to certain ports. This is currently the only form of HTTPS proxy authentication that Tor supports; feel free to submit a patch if you want it to support others.

If set to 1, Tor will run securely through the use of a syscall sandbox. Otherwise the sandbox will be disabled. The option is currently an experimental feature. It only works on Linux-based operating systems, and only when Tor has been built with the libseccomp library. This option can not be changed while tor is running.

When the Sandbox is 1, the following options can not be changed when tor is running: Both username and password must be between 1 and characters. If the option is set to 1, make the Unix socket readable and writable by the default GID. To keep firewalls from expiring connections, send a padding keepalive cell every NUM seconds on open connections that are in use. If the connection has no open circuits, it will instead be closed after NUM seconds of idleness.

Send all messages between minSeverity and maxSeverity to the standard output stream, the standard error stream, or to the system log. The "syslog" value is only supported on Unix. Recognized severity levels are debug, info, notice, warn, and err. We advise using "notice" in most cases, since anything more verbose may provide sensitive information to an attacker who obtains the logs. If only one severity level is given, all messages of that level or higher will be sent to the listed destination.

As above, but send log messages to the listed filename. The "Log" option may appear more than once in a configuration file. Messages are sent to all the logs that match their severity level. As above, but select messages by range of log severity and by a set of "logging domains". Each logging domain corresponds to an area of functionality inside Tor. You can specify any number of severity ranges for a single log statement, each of them prefixed by a comma-separated list of logging domains.

If you specify a severity range without a list of domains, it matches all domains. The currently recognized domains are: Domain names are case-insensitive. If 1, Tor includes message domains with each log message. Every log message currently has at least one domain; most currently have exactly one.

Note that only files logged during the lifetime of this Tor process count toward the total; this is intended to be used to debug problems without opening live servers to resource exhaustion attacks. Make all outbound connections originate from the IP address specified. This option may be used twice, once with an IPv4 address and once with an IPv6 address. IPv6 addresses should be wrapped in square brackets. This setting will be ignored for connections to the loopback addresses Make all outbound non-exit relay and other connections originate from the IP address specified.

Make all outbound exit connections originate from the IP address specified. On clean shutdown, remove FILE. If 1, Tor will log with severity 'warn' various cases of other parties not following the Tor specification.

Otherwise, they are logged with severity 'info'. If 1, Tor forks and daemonizes to the background. This option has no effect on Windows; instead you should use the --service command-line option.

NUM must be positive and either a divisor or a multiple of 1 second. Note that this option only controls the granularity written by Tor to a file or console log. Tor does not for example "batch up" log messages to affect times logged by a controller, times attached to syslog messages, or the mtime fields on log files.

If 1, Tor will overwrite logs at startup and in response to a HUP signal, instead of appending to them. When logging to syslog, adds a tag to the syslog identity such that log entries are marked with "Tor- tag ". Tor can scrub potentially sensitive strings from log messages e. If this option is set to 0, Tor will not perform any scrubbing, if it is set to 1, all potentially sensitive strings are replaced.

If it is set to relay, all log messages generated when acting as a relay are sanitized, but all messages generated when acting as a client are not. On startup, setuid to this user and setgid to their primary group. On Linux, when we are started as root and we switch our identity using the User option, the KeepBindCapabilities option tells us whether to try to retain our ability to bind to low ports.

If this value is 1, we try to keep the capability; if it is 0 we do not; and if it is auto , we keep the capability only if we are configured to listen on a low port. If non-zero, try to use built-in static crypto hardware acceleration when available. When using OpenSSL hardware crypto acceleration attempt to load the dynamic engine of this name.

This must be used for any dynamic hardware engine. Names can be verified with the openssl engine command. Specify this option if using dynamic hardware acceleration and the engine implementation library resides somewhere other than the OpenSSL default. If non-zero, try to write to disk less frequently than we would otherwise.

This is useful when running on flash memory or other media that support only a limited number of writes. It is delivered first to the circuit that has the lowest weighted cell count, where cells are weighted exponentially according to this value in seconds. If the value is -1, it is taken from the consensus if possible else it will fallback to the default value of This can be defined as a float value.

This is mostly useful for debugging rate-limiting. If this option is set to 0, we never include Ed IDs when extending circuits. If the option is set to "default", we obey a parameter in the consensus document.

If this option is set to 1, then Tor will never launch another executable, regardless of the settings of ClientTransportPlugin or ServerTransportPlugin. Once this option has been set to 1, it cannot be set back to 0 without restarting Tor. Specify the scheduler type that tor should use. The scheduler is responsible for moving data around within a Tor process. This is an ordered list by priority which means that the first value will be tried first and if unavailable, the second one is tried and so on.

It is possible to change these values at runtime. This option mostly effects relays, and most operators should leave it set to its default value. Tor will use TCP information from the kernel to make informed decisions regarding how much data to send and when to send it. Same as KIST but without kernel support. Tor will use all the same mechanics as with KIST, including the batching, but its decisions regarding how much data to send will not be as good.

It sends as much data as possible, as soon as possible. Vanilla will work on all kernels and operating systems. If the value is 0 msec, the value is taken from the consensus if possible else it will fallback to the default 10 msec. Maximum possible value is msec. ORPort" as a "bridge" relaying into the Tor network. If "fingerprint" is provided using the same format as for DirAuthority , we will verify that the relay running at that location has the right fingerprint. If "transport" is provided, it must match a ClientTransportPlugin line.

Some transports use a transport-specific method to work out the remote address to connect to. These transports typically ignore the "IP: ORPort" specified in the bridge line. Consult the documentation of the pluggable transport for details of what arguments it supports. Try for at most NUM seconds when building circuits. If LearnCircuitBuildTimeout is 1, this value serves as the initial value to use before a timeout is learned.

If LearnCircuitBuildTimeout is 0, this value is the only value used. Tor will attempt to keep at least one open, unused circuit available for this amount of time.

This option governs how long idle circuits are kept open, as well as the amount of time Tor will keep a circuit open to each of the recently used ports. This way when the Tor client is entirely idle, it can expire all of its circuits, and then expire its TLS connections. Note that the actual timeout value is uniformly randomized from the specified value to twice that amount.

If non-zero, this option overrides our internal timeout schedule for how many seconds until we detach a stream from a circuit and try a new circuit. If your network is particularly slow, you might want to set this to a number like This config option is mostly unnecessary: If it is set to auto , Tor will send padding only if both the client and the relay support it.

If it is set to 0, Tor will not send any padding cells. If it is set to 1, Tor will still send padding for client connections regardless of relay support. Only clients may set this option. This option should be offered via the UI to mobile users for use where bandwidth may be expensive. If set to 1, Tor will not not hold OR connections open for very long, and will send less padding on these connections. A list of identity fingerprints, country codes, and address patterns of nodes to avoid when building a circuit.

Country codes are 2-letter ISO codes, and must be wrapped in braces; fingerprints may be preceded by a dollar sign. If you do not want this behavior, set the StrictNodes option documented below. Note also that if you are a relay, this and the other node selection options below only affects your own circuits that Tor builds for you. Clients can still build circuits through you to any node. Controllers can tell Tor to build circuits through any node. Country codes are case-insensitive. A list of identity fingerprints, country codes, and address patterns of nodes to never use when picking an exit nodethat is, a node that delivers traffic for you outside the Tor network.

Note that any node listed in ExcludeNodes is automatically considered to be part of this list too. See the ExcludeNodes option for more information on how to specify nodes. See also the caveats on the "ExitNodes" option below. If this option is set to 1 , then all unknown countries are treated as excluded in ExcludeNodes and ExcludeExitNodes. A list of identity fingerprints, country codes, and address patterns of nodes to use as exit nodethat is, a node that delivers traffic for you outside the Tor network.

Note that if you list too few nodes here, or if you exclude too many exit nodes with ExcludeExitNodes, you can degrade functionality. Note also that not every circuit is used to deliver traffic outside of the Tor network.

It is normal to see non-exit circuits such as those used to connect to hidden services, those that do directory fetches, those used for relay reachability self-tests, and so on that end at a non-exit node. To keep a node from being used entirely, see ExcludeNodes and StrictNodes. The ExcludeNodes option overrides this option: A list of identity fingerprints and country codes of nodes to use for the first hop in your normal circuits. Normal circuits include all circuits except for direct connections to directory servers.

The Bridge option overrides this option; if you have configured bridges and UseBridges is 1, the Bridges are used as your entry nodes. If StrictNodes is set to 1, Tor will treat solely the ExcludeNodes option as a requirement to follow for all the circuits you generate, even if doing so will break functionality for you StrictNodes applies to neither ExcludeExitNodes nor to ExitNodes.

If StrictNodes is set to 0, Tor will still try to avoid nodes in the ExcludeNodes list, but it will err on the side of avoiding unexpected errors.

Specifically, StrictNodes 0 tells Tor that it is okay to use an excluded node when it is necessary to perform relay reachability self-tests, connect to a hidden service, provide a hidden service to a client, fulfill a. If 1, Tor will only create outgoing connections to ORs running on ports that your firewall allows defaults to 80 and ; see FirewallPorts.

This will allow you to run Tor as a client behind a firewall with restrictive policies, but will not allow you to run as a server behind such a firewall. If you prefer more fine-grained control, use ReachableAddresses instead. A list of ports that your firewall allows you to connect to. Only used when FascistFirewall is set. This option is deprecated; use ReachableAddresses instead. A comma-separated list of IP addresses and ports that your firewall allows you to connect to.

The format is as for the addresses in ExitPolicy, except that "accept" is understood unless "reject" is explicitly provided. For example, 'ReachableAddresses Like ReachableAddresses , a list of addresses and ports. If not set explicitly then the value of ReachableAddresses is used. This option has had no effect for some time. Client authorization for a hidden service. Valid onion addresses contain 16 characters in a-z plus ". The service name is only used for internal purposes, e. This option may be used multiple times for different hidden services.

If a hidden service uses authorization and this option is not set, the hidden service is not accessible.

Hidden services can be configured to require authorization using the HiddenServiceAuthorizeClient option. A list of ports for services that tend to have long-running connections e.

Circuits for streams that use these ports will contain only high-uptime nodes, to reduce the chance that a node will go down before the stream is finished. Note that the list is also honored for circuits both client and service side involving hidden services whose virtual port is in this list. When a request for address arrives to Tor, it will transform to newaddress before processing it. For example, if you always want connections to www.

For example, if you always want connections to example. You can also redirect all subdomains of a domain to a single address. When evaluating MapAddress expressions Tor stops when it hits the most recently added expression that matches the requested address.

So if you have the following in your torrc, www. Tor evaluates the MapAddress configuration until it finds no matches. The following MapAddress expression is invalid and will be ignored because you cannot map from a specific address to a wildcard address:.

Feel free to reuse a circuit that was first used at most NUM seconds ago, but never attach a new stream to a circuit that is too old. For hidden services, this applies to the last time a circuit was used, not the first. Do not allow more than NUM circuits to be pending at a time for handling client streams. A circuit is pending if we have begun constructing it, but it has not yet been completely constructed.

The Tor servers, defined by their identity fingerprints, constitute a "family" of similar or co-administered servers, so never use any two of them in the same circuit. This option can be used multiple times; each instance defines a separate family. If 1, Tor will not put two servers whose IP addresses are "too close" on the same circuit. Although this option allows you to specify an IP address other than localhost, you should do so only with extreme caution.

The SOCKS protocol is unencrypted and as we use it unauthenticated, so exposing it in this way could leak your information to anybody watching your network, and allow anybody to use your computer as an open proxy. The isolation flags arguments give Tor rules for which streams received on this SocksPort are allowed to share circuits with one another. Recognized isolation flags are:. On by default and strongly recommended when supported; you can disable it with NoIsolateClientAddr.

Unsupported and force-disabled when using Unix domain sockets. After such a circuit is idle for more than MaxCircuitDirtiness seconds, it can be closed. If no other isolation rules would prevent it, allow streams on this port to share circuits with streams from every other port with the same session group. By default, streams received on different SocksPorts, TransPorts, etc are always isolated from one another.

This option overrides that behavior. IPv4 is the default. Tell the tor client to only connect to. The corresponding NoOnionTrafficOnly flag is not supported.

Tells the client to remember all DNS answers we receive from exit nodes via this connection. Tells the client to use any cached IPv4 DNS answers we have when making requests via this connection. Tells the client to use any cached IPv6 DNS answers we have when making requests via this connection. Tells the client to use any cached DNS answers we have when making requests via this connection. When serving a hostname lookup request on this port that should get automapped according to AutomapHostsOnResolve , if we could return either an IPv4 or an IPv6 answer, prefer an IPv6 answer.

Flags are processed left to right. If flags conflict, the last flag on the line is used, and all earlier flags are ignored. No error is issued for conflicting flags. The policies have the same form as exit policies below, except that port specifiers are ignored. Any address not matched by some entry in the policy is accepted.

Let a socks connection wait NUM seconds handshaking, and NUM seconds unattached waiting for an appropriate circuit, before we fail it. NUM must be between 1 and , inclusive. When Tor is out of bandwidth, on a connection or globally, it will wait up to this long before it tries to use that connection again.

Note that bandwidth limits are still expressed in bytes per second: For each value in the comma separated list, Tor will track recent connections to hosts that match this value and attempt to reuse the same exit node for each. If the value is prepended with a '. If one of the values is just a '. This option is useful if you frequently connect to sites that will expire all your authentication cookies i. Note that this option does have the disadvantage of making it more clear that a given history is associated with a single user.

However, most people who would wish to observe this will observe it through cookies or other protocol-specific means anyhow. Since exit servers go up and down, it is desirable to expire the association between host and exit server after NUM seconds. The default is seconds 30 minutes. When set along with UseBridges , Tor will try to fetch bridge descriptors from the configured bridge authorities when feasible. It will fall back to a direct request if the authority responds with a When set, Tor will fetch descriptors for each bridge listed in the "Bridge" config lines, and use these relays as both entry guards and directory guards.

If this option is set to 1, we pick a few long-term entry servers, and try to stick with them. This is desirable because constantly changing servers increases the odds that an adversary who owns some servers will observe a fraction of your paths.

In these cases, the this option is ignored. V3 authoritative directories only. Configures the location of the guardfraction file which contains information about how long relays have been guards.

This torrc option specifies whether clients should use the guardfraction information found in the consensus during path selection. If UseEntryGuards is set to 1, we will try to pick NUM routers for our primary guard list, which is the set of routers we strongly prefer when connecting to the Tor network.

If nonzero, and UseEntryGuards is set, minimum time to keep a guard before picking a new one. The Tor network is a group of volunteer-operated servers which mainly focuses on the user privacy and security and they employs this network by connecting through a serious of visual tunnels rather than making a direct connection. This type of method allows both the individuals and the organizations to share information over public networks without compromising their privacy.

By using Tor, you can reach the blocked destination or content or resources. It is also used as building blocks for a software developer to create a new communication tool with built-in privacy features. Among the market, Tor browser is said to be an effective censorship circumvention tool.

In the world of darkness, we are unable to protect ourself from the threat. We all surf the internet in a normal and standard search engines like Google, Yahoo, and Bing. But, do you know what? It is not crawled by any popular search engine and it is not visible to the public. You can access them only if you are a member of Deep Web. And why is it hidden? The above article could help you to know the facts about the deep web and its importance.

Yes, of course, they do. But not in all the circumstances. It focuses on protecting the transport of data. I strongly recommend our user to run a premium VPN rather than a free version to protect yourself from the hack. Without a VPN, it is unsafe to surf the dark deep web. This tool is used for anonymous communication purpose and you can use this as an individual or a group.

They use Tor to keep their websites from tracking or to connect to new sites, instant messaging services, or the like when these are blocked by their local internet providers. There are more Tor like browsers available online such as I2P and Freenet. But, these are not providing enough security to the user to prevent them from the hack. Groups members use Tor for safeguarding their privacy and security online.

Just eight days after hitting two million searches per day, we added another million. To put this in perspective, it took 1, days to get to one million from the day we launched. The big guys have thousands more employees than us, and so everyone at DuckDuckGo is an essential member of the team.

DuckDuckGo launches a redesigned search engine with a refined look and a focus on smarter answers. And, of course, we still don't track you. Mozilla adds DuckDuckGo as a built-in search option to Firefox. Don't hold your breath. To celebrate, we gave away a ton of DuckDuckGo T-shirts! We concluded with over four billion anonymous searches served, surpassing a cumulative count of ten billion! Over 20 million searches in a single day. Our app and browser extension stop you from being tracked, so you can Internet with peace of mind.

What you search for is your own business. You deserve privacy online. Too many people believe that you simply can't expect privacy on the Internet.

What is Tor Project?

Are you looking active tor search engine links where you can search your keyword and can easily find relevant result except onion links or clearnet links, these onion search engine, tor directory links have more than millions of active onion links records, let's find best tor search engine and tor directory links info. A search engine for services accessible on the Tor network. Torrentz was a free, fast and powerful meta-search engine combining results from dozens of search engines.