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Students need to be taught the "normal", everyday conventional representations of arithmetic, and they need to be taught how to manipulate and calculate with written numbers by a variety of different means -- by calculators, by computer, by abacus, and by the society's "normal" algorithmic manipulations 23 , which in western countries are the methods of "regrouping" in addition and subtraction, multiplying multi-digit numbers in precise steps, and doing long division, etc.

Learning to use these things takes lots of repetition and practice, using games or whatever to make it as interesting as possible. But these things are generally matters of simply drill or practice on the part of children.

But students should not be forced to try to make sense of these things by teachers who think that these things are matters of obvious or simple logic. These are not matters of obvious or simple logic, as I have tried to demonstrate in this paper. Children will be swimming upstream if they are looking for logic when they are merely learning conventions or learning algorithms whose logic is far more complicated than being able to remember the steps of the algorithms, which itself is difficult enough for the children.

And any teacher who makes it look to children like conventions and algorithmic manipulations are matters of logic they need to understand, is doing them a severe disservice. On the other hand, children do need to work on the logical aspects of mathematics, some of which follow from given conventions or representations and some of which have nothing to do with any particular conventions but have to do merely with the way quantities relate to each other.

But developing children's mathematical insight and intuition requires something other than repetition, drill, or practice. Many of these things can be done simultaneously though they may not be in any way related to each other. Students can be helped to get logical insights that will stand them in good stead when they eventually get to algebra and calculus 24 , even though at a different time of the day or week they are only learning how to "borrow" and "carry" currently called "regrouping" two-column numbers.

They can learn geometrical insights in various ways, in some cases through playing miniature golf on all kinds of strange surfaces, through origami , through making periscopes or kaleidoscopes, through doing some surveying, through studying the buoyancy of different shaped objects, or however.

Or they can be taught different things that might be related to each other, as the poker chip colors and the column representations of groups. What is important is that teachers can understand which elements are conventional or conventionally representational, which elements are logical, and which elements are complexly algorithmic so that they teach these different kinds of elements, each in its own appropriate way, giving practice in those things which benefit from practice, and guiding understanding in those things which require understanding.

And teachers need to understand which elements of mathematics are conventional or conventionally representational, which elements are logical, and which elements are complexly algorithmic so that they can teach those distinctions themselves when students are ready to be able to understand and assimilate them.

Conceptual structures for multiunit numbers: Cognition and Instruction, 7 4 , Children's understanding of place value: Young Children, 48 5 , Young children continue to reinvent arithmetic: Mere repetition about conceptual matters can work in cases where intervening experiences or information have taken a student to a new level of awareness so that what is repeated to him will have "new meaning" or relevance to him that it did not before. Repetition about conceptual points without new levels of awareness will generally not be helpful.

And mere repetition concerning non-conceptual matters may be helpful, as in interminably reminding a young baseball player to keep his swing level, a young boxer to keep his guard up and his feet moving, or a child learning to ride a bicycle to "keep peddling; keep peddling; PEDDLE!

If you think you understand place value, then answer why columns have the names they do. That is, why is the tens column the tens column or the hundreds column the hundreds column? And, could there have been some method other than columns that would have done the same things columns do, as effectively?

If so, what, how, and why? If not, why not? In other words, why do we write numbers using columns, and why the particular columns that we use? In informal questioning, I have not met any primary grade teachers who can answer these questions or who have ever even thought about them before.

How something is taught, or how the teaching or material is structured, to a particular individual and sometimes to similar groups of individuals is extremely important for how effectively or efficiently someone or everyone can learn it. Sometimes the structure is crucial to learning it at all. A simple example first: It is even difficult for an American to grasp a phone number if you pause after the fourth digit instead of the third "three, two, three, two pause , five, five, five".

I had a difficult time learning from a book that did many regions simultaneously in different cross-sections of time. I could make my own cross-sectional comparisons after studying each region in entirety, but I could not construct a whole region from what, to me, were a jumble of cross-sectional parts.

The only way to keep the bike from tipping over was to lean far out over the remaining training wheel. The child was justifiably riding at a 30 degree angle to the bike. When I took off the other training wheel to teach her to ride, it took about ten minutes just to get her back to a normal novice's initial upright riding position.

I don't believe she could have ever learned to ride by the father's method. Many people I have taught have taken whole courses in photography that were not structured very well, and my perspective enlightens their understanding in a way they may not have achieved in the direction they were going.

My lecturer did not structure the material for us, and to me the whole thing was an endless, indistinguishable collection of popes and kings and wars. I tried to memorize it all and it was virtually impossible.

I found out at the end of the term that the other professor who taught the course to all my friends spent each of his lectures simply structuring a framework in order to give a perspective for the students to place the details they were reading.

He admitted at the end of the year that was a big mistake; students did not learn as well using this structure. I did not become good at organic chemistry. There appeared to be much memorization needed to learn each of these individual formulas. I happened to notice the relationship the night before the midterm exam, purely by luck and some coincidental reasoning about something else.

I figured I was the last to see it of the students in the course and that, as usual, I had been very naive about the material. It turned out I was the only one to see it. I did extremely well but everyone else did miserably on the test because memory under exam conditions was no match for reasoning. Had the teachers or the book simply specifically said the first formula was a general principle from which you could derive all the others, most of the other students would have done well on the test also.

There could be millions of examples. Most people have known teachers who just could not explain things very well, or who could only explain something one precise way, so that if a student did not follow that particular explanation, he had no chance of learning that thing from that teacher. The structure of the presentation to a particular student is important to learning. In a small town not terribly far from Birmingham, there is a recently opened McDonald's that serves chocolate shakes which are off-white in color and which taste like not very good vanilla shakes.

They are not like other McDonald's chocolate shakes. When I told the manager how the shakes tasted, her response was that the shake machine was brand new, was installed by experts, and had been certified by them the previous week --the shake machine met McDonald's exacting standards, so the shakes were the way they were supposed to be; there was nothing wrong with them. There was no convincing her. After she returned to her office I realized, and mentioned to the sales staff, that I should have asked her to take a taste test to try to distinguish her chocolate shakes from her vanilla ones.

That would show her there was no difference. The staff told me that would not work since there was a clear difference: Unfortunately, too many teachers teach like that manager manages.

They think if they do well what the manuals and the college courses and the curriculum guides tell them to do, then they have taught well and have done their job. What the children get out of it is irrelevant to how good a teacher they are. It is the presentation, not the reaction to the presentation, that they are concerned about. To them "teaching" is the presentation or the setting up of the classroom for discovery or work. If they "teach" well what children already know, they are good teachers.

If they make dynamic well-prepared presentations with much enthusiasm, or if they assign particular projects, they are good teachers, even if no child understands the material, discovers anything, or cares about it.

If they train their students to be able to do, for example, fractions on a test, they have done a good job teaching arithmetic whether those children understand fractions outside of a test situation or not. And if by whatever means necessary they train children to do those fractions well, it is irrelevant if they forever poison the child's interest in mathematics. Teaching, for teachers like these, is just a matter of the proper technique, not a matter of the results. Well, that is not any more true than that those shakes meet McDonald's standards just because the technique by which they are made is "certified".

I am not saying that classroom teachers ought to be able to teach so that every child learns. There are variables outside of even the best teachers' control. But teachers ought to be able to tell what their reasonably capable students already know, so they do not waste their time or bore them. Teachers ought to be able to tell whether reasonably capable students understand new material, or whether it needs to be presented again in a different way or at a different time.

And teachers ought to be able to tell whether they are stimulating those students' minds about the material or whether they are poisoning any interest the child might have. All the techniques in all the instructional manuals and curriculum guides in all the world only aim at those ends.

Techniques are not ends in themselves; they are only means to ends. Those teachers who perfect their instructional techniques by merely polishing their presentations, rearranging the classroom environment, or conscientiously designing new projects, without any understanding of, or regard for, what they are actually doing to children may as well be co-managing that McDonald's.

Some of these studies interpreted to show that children do not understand place-value, are, I believe, mistaken.

Jones and Thornton explain the following "place-value task": Children are asked to count 26 candies and then to place them into 6 cups of 4 candies each, with two candies remaining.

When the "2" of "26" was circled and the children were asked to show it with candies, the children typically pointed to the two candies. When the "6" in "26" was circled and asked to be pointed out with candies, the children typically pointed to the 6 cups of candy.

This is taken to demonstrate children do not understand place value. I believe this demonstrates the kind of tricks similar to the following problems, which do not show lack of understanding, but show that one can be deceived into ignoring or forgetting one's understanding. At the beginning of the tide's coming in, three rungs are under water.

If the tide comes in for four hours at the rate of 1 foot per hour, at the end of this period, how many rungs will be submerged? The answer is not nine, but "still just three, because the ship will rise with the tide. This tends to be an extremely difficult problem --psychologically-- though it has an extremely simple answer.

The money paid out must simply equal the money taken in. People who cannot solve this problem, generally have no trouble accounting for money, however; they do only when working on this problem. If you know no calculus, the problem is not especially difficult. It is a favorite problem to trick unsuspecting math professors with. Two trains start out simultaneously, miles apart on the same track, heading toward each other. The train in the west is traveling 70 mph and the train in the east is traveling 55 mph.

At the time the trains begin, a bee that flies mph starts at one train and flies until it reaches the other, at which time it reverses without losing any speed and immediately flies back to the first train, which, of course, is now closer.

The bee keeps going back and forth between the two ever-closer trains until it is squashed between them when they crash into each other. What is the total distance the bee flies? The computationally extremely difficult, but psychologically logically apparent, solution is to "sum an infinite series".

Mathematicians tend to lock into that method. The easy solution, however, is that the trains are approaching each other at a combined rate of mph, so they will cover the miles, and crash, in 6 hours.

The bee is constantly flying mph; so in that 6 hours he will fly miles. One mathematician is supposed to have given the answer immediately, astonishing a questioner who responded how incredible that was "since most mathematicians try to sum an infinite series.

It is not that mathematicians do not know how to solve this problem the easy way; it is that it is constructed in a way to make them not think about the easy way. I believe that the problem Jones and Thornton describe acts similarly on the minds of children.

Though I believe there is ample evidence children, and adults, do not really understand place-value, I do not think problems of this sort demonstrate that, any more than problems like those given here demonstrate lack of understanding about the principles involved.

It is easy to see children do not understand place-value when they cannot correctly add or subtract written numbers using increasingly more difficult problems than they have been shown and drilled or substantially rehearsed "how" to do by specific steps; i. By increasingly difficult, I mean, for example, going from subtracting or summing relatively smaller quantities to relatively larger ones with more and more digits , going to problems that require call it what you like regrouping, carrying, borrowing, or trading; going to subtraction problems with zeroes in the number from which you are subtracting; to consecutive zeroes in the number from which you are subtracting; and subtracting such problems that are particularly psychologically difficult in written form, such as "10, - 9,".

Asking students to demonstrate how they solve the kinds of problems they have been "taught" and rehearsed on merely tests their attention and memory, but asking students to demonstrate how they solve new kinds of problems that use the concepts and methods you have been demonstrating, but "go just a bit further" from them helps to show whether they have developed understanding. However, the kinds of problems at the beginning of this endnote do not do that because they have been contrived specifically to psychologically mislead, or they are constructed accidentally in such a way as to actually mislead.

They go beyond what the students have been specifically taught, but do it in a tricky way rather than a merely "logically natural" way. I cannot categorize in what ways "going beyond in a tricky way" differs from "going beyond in a 'naturally logical' way" in order to test for understanding, but the examples should make clear what it is I mean. Further, it is often difficult to know what someone else is asking or saying when they do it in a way that is different from anything you are thinking about at the time.

If you ask about a spatial design of some sort and someone draws a cutaway view from an angle that makes sense to him, it may make no sense to you at all until you can "re-orient" your thinking or your perspective. Or if someone is demonstrating a proof or rationale, he may proceed in a step you don't follow at all, and may have to ask him to explain that step.

What was obvious to him was not obvious to you at the moment. The fact that a child, or any subject, points to two candies when you circle the "2" in "26" and ask him to show you what that means, may be simply because he is not thinking about what you are asking in the way that you are asking it or thinking about it yourself.

There is no deception involved; you both are simply thinking about different things -- but using the same words or symbols to describe what you are thinking about. Or, ask someone to look at the face of a person about ten feet away from them and describe what they see.

They will describe that person's face, but they will actually be seeing much more than that person's face. So, their answer is wrong, though understandably so. Now, in a sense, this is a trivial and trick misunderstanding, but in photography, amateurs all the time "see" only a face in their viewer, when actually they are too far away to have that face show up very well in the photograph.

They really do not know all they are seeing through the viewer, and all that the camera is "seeing" to take. The difference is that if one makes this mistake with a camera, it really is a mistake; if one makes the mistake verbally in answer to the question I stated, it may not be a real mistake but only taking an ambiguous question the way it deceptively was not intended.

Asking a child what a circled "2" means, no matter where it comes from, may give the child no reason to think you are asking about the "twenty" part of "26" --especially when there are two objects you have intentionally had him put before him, and no readily obvious set of twenty objects.

He may understand place-value perfectly well, but not see that is what you are asking about -- especially under the circumstances you have constructed and in which you ask the question. If you understand the concept of place-value, if you understand how children or anyone tend to think about new information of any sort and how easy misunderstanding is, particularly about conceptual matters , and if you watch most teachers teach about the things that involve place-value, or any other logical-conceptual aspects of math, it is not surprising that children do not understand place-value or other mathematical concepts very well and that they cannot generally do math very well.

Place-value, like many concepts, is often taught as though it were some sort of natural phenomena --as if being in the 10's column was a simple, naturally occurring, observable property, like being tall or loud or round-- instead of a logically and psychologically complex concept.

What may be astonishing is that most adults can do math as well as they do it at all with as little in-depth understanding as they have.

Research on what children understand about place-value should be recognized as what children understand about place-value given how it has been taught to them , not as the limits of their possible understanding about place-value. Baroody categorizes what he calls "increasingly abstract models of multidigit numbers using objects or pictures" and includes mention of the model I think most appropriate --different color poker chips --which he points out to be conceptually similar to Egyptian hieroglyphics-- in which a different looking "marker" is used to represent tens.

I do not believe that his categories are categories of increasingly abstract models of multidigit numbers. He has four categories; I believe the first two are merely concrete groupings of objects interlocking blocks and tally marks in the first category, and Dienes blocks and drawings of Dienes blocks in the second category. And the second two --different marker type and different relative-position-value-- are both equally abstract representations of grouping, the difference between them being that relative-positional-value is a more difficult concept to assimilate at first than is different marker type.

It is not more abstract; it is just abstract in a way that is more difficult to recognize and deal with. Further, Baroody labels all his categories as kinds of "trading", but he does not seem to recognize there is sometimes a difference between "trading" and "representing", and that trading is not abstract at all in the way that representing is. I can trade you my Mickey Mantle card for your Ted Kluzewski card or my tuna sandwich for your soft drink, but that does not mean Mickey Mantle cards represent Klu cards or that sandwiches represent soft drinks.

Children in general, not just children with low ability, can understand trading without necessarily understanding representing. And they can go on from there to understand the kind of representing that does happen to be similar to trading, which is the kind of representing that place-value is. But with regard to trading, as opposed to representing, it is easier first to apprehend or appreciate or remember, or pretend there being a value difference between objects that are physically different, regardless of where they are, than it is to apprehend or appreciate a difference between two identical looking objects that are simply in different places.

It makes sense to say that something can be of more or less value if it is physically changed, not just physically moved. Painting your car, bumping out the dents, or re-building the carburetor makes it worth more in some obvious way; parking it further up in your driveway does not. It makes sense to a child to say that two blue poker chips are worth 20 white ones; it makes less apparent sense to say a "2" over here is worth ten "2's" over here.

Color poker chips teach the important abstract representational parts of columns in a way children can grasp far more readily. So why not use them and make it easier for all children to learn? And poker chips are relatively inexpensive classroom materials.

By thinking of using different marker types to represent different group values primarily as an aid for students of "low ability", Baroody misses their potential for helping all children, including quite "bright" children, learn place-value earlier, more easily, and more effectively. Remember, written versions of numbers are not the same thing as spoken versions.

Written versions have to be learned as well as spoken versions; knowing spoken numbers does not teach written numbers. For example, numbers written in Roman numerals are pronounced the same as numbers in Arabic numerals. And numbers written in binary form are pronounced the same as the numbers they represent; they just are written differently, and look like different numbers. In binary math "" is "six", not "one hundred ten". When children learn to read numbers, they sometimes make some mistakes like calling "11" "one-one", etc.

Even adults, when faced with a large multi-column number, often have difficulty naming the number, though they might have no trouble manipulating the number for calculations; number names beyond the single digit numbers are not necessarily a help for thinking about or manipulating numbers.

Fuson explains how the names of numbers from 10 through 99 in the Chinese language include what are essentially the column names as do our whole-number multiples of , and she thinks that makes Chinese-speaking students able to learn place-value concepts more readily. But I believe that does not follow, since however the names of numbers are pronounced, the numeric designation of them is still a totally different thing from the written word designation; e.

It should be just as difficult for a Chinese-speaking child to learn to identify the number "11" as it is for an English-speaking child, because both, having learned the number "1" as "one", will see the number "11" as simply two "ones" together. It should not be any easier for a Chinese child to learn to read or pronounce "11" as the Chinese translation of "one-ten, one" than it is for English-speaking children to see it as "eleven". And Fuson does note the detection of three problems Chinese children have: But there is, or should be, more involved.

Even after Chinese-speaking children have learned to read numeric numbers, such as "" as the Chinese translation of "2-one hundred, one-ten, five", that alone should not help them be able to subtract "56" from it any more easily than an English-speaking child can do it, because 1 one still has to translate the concepts of trading into columnar numeric notations, which is not especially easy, and because 2 one still has to understand how ones, tens, hundreds, etc. And although it may seem easy to subtract "five-ten" 50 from "six-ten" 60 to get "one-ten" 10 , it is not generally difficult for people who have learned to count by tens to subtract "fifty" from "sixty" to get "ten".

Nor is it difficult for English-speaking students who have practiced much with quantities and number names to subtract "forty-two" from "fifty-six" to get "fourteen".

Surely it is not easier for a Chinese-speaking child to get "one-ten four" by subtracting "four-ten two" from "five-ten six". Algebra students often have a difficult time adding and subtracting mixed variables [e. I suspect that if Chinese-speaking children understand place-value better than English-speaking children, there is more reason than the name designation of their numbers. And Fuson points out a number of things that Asian children learn to do that American children are generally not taught, from various methods of finger counting to practicing with pairs of numbers that add to ten or to whole number multiples of ten.

From a conceptual standpoint of the sort I am describing in this paper, it would seem that sort of practice is far more important for learning about relationships between numbers and between quantities than the way spoken numbers are named.

There are all kinds of ways to practice using numbers and quantities; if few or none of them are used, children are not likely to learn math very well, regardless of how number words are constructed or pronounced or how numbers are written.

Because children can learn to read numbers simply by repetition and practice, I maintain that reading and writing numbers has nothing necessarily to do with understanding place-value.

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The deal was closed in the fourth quarter of This is PayPal's largest acquisition to date and the company claims that it is the in-store expertise and digital marketing strength that will complement its own online and mobile payment services. The PayPal European headquarters are located in Luxembourg and the international headquarters are in Singapore. PayPal opened a technology center in Scottsdale, Arizona in , [64] and a software development center in Chennai , India in As of [update] , PayPal operates in markets and has million active, registered accounts.

PayPal allows customers to send, receive, and hold funds in 25 currencies worldwide. PayPal's services allow people to make financial transactions online by granting the ability to transfer funds electronically between individuals and businesses.

It is not necessary to have a PayPal account to use the company's services. From to , PayPal operated Student Accounts, allowing parents to set up a student account, transfer money into it, and obtain a debit card for student use. The program provided tools to teach how to spend money wisely and take responsibility for actions.

In November , PayPal opened its platform, allowing other services to get access to its code and to use its infrastructure in order to enable peer-to-peer online transactions. PayPal Credit offers shoppers access to an instant online revolving line of credit at thousands of vendors that accept PayPal, subject to credit approval. PayPal Credit allows consumers to shop online in much the same way as they would with a traditional credit card.

One year after acquiring Braintree , PayPal introduced its "One Touch" service, which allows users to pay with a one-touch option on participating merchants websites or apps. In , the company launched "PayPal Here", a small business mobile payment system that includes a combination of a free mobile app and a small card-reader that plugs into a smart phone. PayPal launched an updated app for iOS and Android in that expanded its mobile app capabilities by allowing users to search for local shops and restaurants that accept PayPal payments, order ahead at participating venues, and access their PayPal Credit accounts formerly known as Bill Me Later.

Second, we began expanding PayPal to eBay's international sites. And third, we started to build PayPal's business off eBay. In the first phase, payment volumes were coming mostly from the eBay auction website. The system was very attractive to auction sellers, most of which were individuals or small businesses that were unable to accept credit cards, and for consumers as well. In fact, many sellers could not qualify for a credit card Merchant account because they lacked a commercial credit history.

The service also appealed to auction buyers because they could fund PayPal accounts using credit cards or bank account balances, without divulging credit card numbers to unknown sellers. Until , PayPal's strategy was to earn interest on funds in PayPal accounts. However, most recipients of PayPal credits withdrew funds immediately. To solve this problem, PayPal tailored its product to cater more to business accounts. Instead of relying on interests earned from deposited funds, PayPal started relying on earnings from service charges.

They offered seller protection to PayPal account holders, provided that they comply with reimbursement policies. After fine-tuning PayPal's business model and increasing its domestic and international penetration on eBay, PayPal started its off-eBay strategy. This was based on developing stronger growth in active users by adding users across multiple platforms, despite the slowdown in on-eBay growth and low-single-digit user growth on the eBay site.

A late reorganization created a new business unit within PayPal—Merchant Services—to provide payment solutions to small and large e-commerce merchants outside the eBay auction community.

Starting in the second half of , PayPal Merchant Services unveiled several initiatives to enroll online merchants outside the eBay auction community, including: PayPal can be used in more than countries. Different countries have different conditions: Send only Package Service allows sending only, valid in 97 countries , PayPal Zero package suggests the possibility of enrollment, entry, and withdrawal of funds in foreign currency, but the user can not hold the balance PayPal account, operates in 18 countries , SRW Send - Receive - Withdrawal the possibility of enrollment, input-output and the ability to keep your PayPal account balance in the currency and to transfer to the card when the user sees fit, operates in 41 countries and Local Currency SRW plus opportunity to conduct transactions in local currency, 21 countries.

In late March , new Japanese banking regulations forced PayPal Japan to suspend the ability of personal account holders registered in Japan from sending or receiving money between individuals and as a result are now subject to PayPal's business fees on all transactions.

PayPal has disabled sending and receiving personal payments in India, thus forcing all recipients to pay a transaction fee. PayPal plans to make India an incubation center for the company's employee engagement policies. In , PayPal hired people for its offices in Chennai and Bangalore. On 8 November , PayPal launched domestic operations under PayPal Payments Private Limited and now provides digital payment solutions for merchants and customers in India. In January , PayPal ceased operations in the Crimea in compliance with international sanctions against Russia and Crimea.

Eight years after the company first started operating in the country, Paypal ceased operations in Turkey on 6 June when Turkish financial regulator BDDK denied it a payments license. The regulators had demanded that Paypal's data centers be located inside Turkey to facilitate compliance with government and court orders to block content and to generate tax revenue.

PayPal said that the closure will affect tens of thousands of businesses and hundreds of thousands of consumers in Turkey.

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PayPal launches different marketing activities in various channels and emphasizes that consumers can use it in different ways. PayPal provides free analytics to traders about the ways that consumers utilise online payments. PayPal's code gathers the consumer information which can be installed on the trader's website.

Thiel, a founder of PayPal, has stated that PayPal is not a bank because it does not engage in fractional-reserve banking. In the United States , PayPal is licensed as a money transmitter , on a state-by-state basis. Ordinarily, a credit card transaction, specifically the relationship between the issuing bank and the cardholder, is governed by the Truth in Lending Act TILA 15 U. Basically, unless a PayPal transaction is funded with a credit card, the consumer has no recourse in the event of fraud by the seller.

In , PayPal Europe was granted a Luxembourg banking license, which, under European Union law, allows it to conduct banking business throughout the EU. This ceased in , when the company moved to Luxembourg. In India , as of January , PayPal has no cross-border money transfer authorization. The PayPal Buyer Protection Policy states that the customer may file a buyer complaint if he or she did not receive an item or if the item he or she purchased was significantly not as described.

The customer can open a dispute within days for registered UK residents days, changed 14 June from the date of payment and escalate it to a claim within 20 days from opening the dispute. If the buyer used a credit card, he or she might get a refund via chargeback from his or her credit-card company.

However, in the UK, where such a purchaser is entitled to specific statutory protections that the credit card company is a second party to the purchase and is therefore equally liable in law if the other party defaults or goes into liquidation under Section 75 Consumer Credit Act , the purchaser loses this legal protection if the card payment is processed via PayPal.

Also, the Financial Ombudsman Service position is that section 75 protection does not apply where PayPal or any eMoney service becomes involved in the credit card transaction. This leaves consumers with no recourse to pursue their complaint with the Financial Ombudsman Service.

They only have recourse with the courts. This is a legal authority that section 75 protection does exist where one has paid on credit card for a product, via an eMoney service. In general, the Seller Protection Policy is intended to protect the seller from certain kinds of chargebacks or complaints if the seller meets certain conditions including proof of delivery to the buyer. PayPal states the Seller Protection Policy is "designed to protect sellers against claims by buyers of unauthorized payments and against claims of non-receipt of any merchandise".

The policy includes a list of "Exclusions" which itself includes "Intangible goods", "Claims for receipt of goods 'not as described ' ", and "Total reversals over the annual limit". In early , PayPal introduced an optional security key as an additional precaution against fraud. The account holder enters his or her login ID and password as normal but is then prompted to enter a six-digit code provided by a credit card sized hardware security key or a text message sent to the account holder's mobile phone.

For convenience, the user may append the code generated by the hardware key to his or her password in the login screen. This way he or she is not prompted for it on another page.

Reasons to Consider PayPal Alternatives

Jan 07,  · Reader Approved How to Use PayPal. Four Methods: Signing Up for PayPal Spending Money Via PayPal Receiving Money Via PayPal Troubleshooting Your PayPal Account Community Q&A PayPal is the most popular payment processing site in the world and currently provides service to over million people in different . Use PayPal to securely, send money online using a bank account, debit or credit card in the US or transfer money internationally, to friend or family. PayPal Holdings, Inc. is an American company operating a worldwide online payments system that supports online money transfers and serves as an electronic alternative to traditional paper methods like cheques and money loominggu.ga company operates as a payment processor for online vendors, auction sites, and other commercial users, for .